Dr. Allen Cherer | Neonatal Care & Pediatrics

Dr. Allen Cherer is a neonatal care expert with over 30 years of medical accomplishments to his name.

Tag: Pregnancy

Reflections on Cesarean Section Rates

Cesarean section delivery is among the most common surgical procedures. It is estimated that in 2012 alone, over 22 million cesarean deliveries were performed worldwide. Data from the National Vital Statistics show that the total cesarean section rate in the U.S. in 1996 was approximately 21%.

Since that time, there has been a rapid increase in the rate, such that in 2011, close to 1 in 3 mothers delivered by cesarean. Although the rate has leveled since then, there remains no evidence that such a significant increase has been accompanied by a concomitant decrease in maternal or neonatal mortality.

Although cesarean delivery can be life-saving for the fetus, the mother, or both in certain cases, the concern exists that cesarean delivery is overused. Hence, the matter is a global health issue. Since one of the main driving forces for the increased total cesarean rate has been a marked shift to repeat cesarean delivery following a previous primary cesarean section, a concerted effort over the past several years has been to examine closely the factors related to the safe management of the nulliparous pregnancy.

As early as 1985, the World Health Organization (WHO) stated there was no justification for any region to have a cesarean delivery rate greater than 10-15 /100 live births. Nevertheless, the rates continued to increase worldwide with no scientific evidence indicative of substantial maternal or perinatal benefit.

In fact, a number of studies have associated higher rates of cesarean deliveries with negative consequences, including increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as increased consumption of limited health resources by procedures without medical indications.

In March 2014, a consensus report was issued by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine on the safe prevention of the primary cesarean section. Among other points, it addressed management guidelines for the most frequent indications for primary cesarean deliveries, namely, labor dystocia, abnormal or indeterminate fetal heart rate tracing, fetal malpresentation, multiple gestation, and suspected macrosomia.

The report encouraged obstetricians to allow more time to progress through a vaginal delivery without intervention, recommended improved and standardized fetal heart rate interpretation and management, and advocated access to non-medical interventionsduring labor, such as continuous labor and delivery support.

A study by researchers at Harvard Medical School and the Stanford University School of Medicine published December 2015 in The Journal of the American Medical Association suggested that based on analyses of cesarean section rates and maternal and neonatal outcomes among 194 WHO member countries the ideal rate of childbirth by cesarean section approximates 19% of all births as opposed tothe previously considered optimal rate of 10-15%. Although the finding is higher than the former target, it remains significantly lower than the current rate in U.S. hospitals.

In its April 2015 position statement on cesarean delivery, the WHO moved away from any target rate. Rather, it emphasized that every effort should be made to ensure cesarean sections are provided to the women in need and only be performed when medically necessary.

It is gratifying that the concept of “target rate” is no longer tied to the delivery of quality medical care. Primarily due to the lack of a consistent classification system to monitor and compare different obstetric profiles, meaningful data relative to cesarean section rates is missing.

It is only when such systems as the Robson Ten Group Classification System are widely adopted by institutions that valid “risk-adjusted”cesarean section rates can potentially be developed and comparisons be made between institutions, regions, and countries.

Physical Trauma and Pregnancy

Trauma is an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, and blunt abdominal trauma is a particular concern. Approximately 8% of pregnant women sustain some form of traumatic injury. Automobile accidents and falls account for most of the injuries.

Studies of pregnant women involved in automobile accidents have demonstrated increased rates of premature rupture of membranes, placental abruption, preterm birth, and stillbirth. A recent study examines pregnancies complicated by traumatic injuries and outcomes in relation to place of triage.

According to the retrospective study published in the Journal of the American College of Surgeons, pregnant women who sustained traumatic injuries and were triaged to trauma centers experienced improved pregnancy outcomes compared to women cared for in non-trauma hospitals. For the study, the researchers linked two databases, the Washington State Birth Events Records Database and the Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Recording System.

The method allowed them to assess the maternal and neonatal outcomes of all injured, pregnant women (3429 patients) who were hospitalized in Washington State between the years 1995 and 2012. The findings showed that after adjusting for a number of confounding factors, including injury severity score, pregnant women who were cared for in trauma facilities had better outcomes with significantly decreased odds of preterm labor, preterm birth, and low birth weight infants.

Since trauma centers are specialized medical facilities which have optimal processes and resources in place to monitor and treat injured patients, the study suggests that many injured, pregnant women may in fact be under-triaged and treated in non-trauma hospitals where their care may not be optimal.

According to the coauthors, John Distelhorst, DO, MPH and Vijay Krishnamoorthy, MD, the findings may lead to further analyses of state trauma systems and the triage of specific patient populations to improve quality of care and patient outcomes. To read more about this, please visit this site. 

 

Approaching a Birth Plan

Pregnancy is an exciting time for expectant parents, and childbirth is a miraculous event. Nevertheless,due to the innate unknowns, it can result in considerable anxiety and sense of loss of control. One means of combating these feelings is through thoughtful preparation of a birth plan based on realistic and trustful communication among all the parties who will be involved.

Since the early Roman period, pregnant women in labor had been attended by friends, relatives, or others experienced in aiding with childbirth. As time progressed, the management of the laboring woman became more involved and the advancement of technologies to better monitor the unborn child and the mother required a change in the birth place and the sophistication of the caregivers.

baby feet

 

Currently,the vast majority (>98%) of deliveries in the U.S. occur in the hospital setting and are attended by midwives or physicians. In association with these changes came the option of operative delivery (cesarean section) which in 2012 accounted for close to 30% of all births in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cesarean sections are known to be medically indicated for a number of reasons to safeguard the well being of baby and/or mother.

At the same time, for most pregnancies that are low risk, cesarean section may pose greater risks than vaginal delivery, especially risks related to future pregnancies. Due to the recent rapid increase in the cesarean section rate and concerns that operative delivery is overused without clear evidence of improved maternal or newborn outcomes, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) issued in 2014 new recommendations targeted at preventing women from having cesarean sections with their first birth and at decreasing the national cesarean rate.

child in neonatal care

Pain management is a significant component of the birth plan. Although most mothers report only mild discomfort during early labor, as contractions become stronger, longer, and more frequent, pain intensifies and may require relief with either spinal or epidural anesthesia.

Although the medications are generally considered safe, very rare complications can occur. For those women opting for a more natural childbirth, the participation in a yoga program during pregnancy or the use of hypnosis have been described.

Whatever birth plan is developed for an individual pregnancy, it should always be tempered based onthe saying “the best laid plans of mice and men often go awry”. The overriding goal should always be a safe birth for both mother and baby. If communication and trust exist among all parties, childbirth can be a magnificent process.

Eating Tips for Your Pregnancy

The nutritional status of women when becoming pregnant and during pregnancy can have significant influence on infant and maternal health problems. Numerous studies of nutritional education and counseling before and during pregnancy have demonstrated beneficial effects in terms of improved gestational weight, increased head circumference, reduced risk of preterm birth, and reduced risk at birth of maternal anemia.

A pregnant woman needs to ensure that her diet provides enough nutrients and energy for her baby to grow and develop properly and also to make sure her body is capable of sustaining the multiple demands that come with pregnancy. Caloric intake grows with pregnancy and weight gain varies considerably. For the average healthy woman, ideal weight gain is 25-35 lbs during the nine month pregnancy.

nutritional education

 

Either excessive or insufficient weight gain can be deleterious to the health of both the baby and the mother. In general, mother’s diet needs to be balanced and nutritious, involving right proportions of protein, carbohydrate, and fat while consuming a wide variety of fruits and vegetables.

Specifically, fat should provide no more than 30% of daily calories with monosaturated fats being preferable. Examples are foods such as olive oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, canola oil, avocado, and many nuts and seeds. Excellent sources of carbohydrates are potatoes, rice, pasta, and bread.

avocadonuts

Animal-sourced protein includes lean meat and fish, as well as eggs. Beans, lentils, and legumes are good sources of protein as well as being rich in iron. Quinoa is notable as a source of all the essential amino acids. As far as fruits and vegetables, fresh and frozen produce usually have higher vitamin and nutrient content as well as being excellent sources of fiber.

Micronutrient deficiencies can be addressed through diet as well as supplements. The value of prenatal vitamins cannot be overemphasized. Folic acid, iron, vitamin D, calcium, iodine, and zinc are especially important during pregnancy. Adequate folic acid before and during pregnancy is critical in preventing neural tube defects which affect the brain and spinal cord. Recommended daily intake is 400-600 mcg.

During pregnancy, maternal blood volume increases significantly and adequate iron supplementation is required to prevent anemia and promote adequate oxygen carrying capacity. Vitamin D deficiency is common even in the non-pregnant state. Adequate Vitamin D during pregnancy is critical for normal fetal skeletal development and may be beneficial in mother to prevent preeclampsia.

Recommended dose is controversial and ranges from 600-4000 IU/day. Iodine is important for normal fetal thyroid development and function.

Clearly, pregnancy places impressive metabolic demands on the mother’s body. Only through nutritional education and counseling can the best outcomes for both mother and baby be achieved.

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